自然資源部巖巖溶動力學重點實驗室

桂林甑皮巖遺址巖溶地下水水害成因及防治對策

2011-04-05KDL 1392

Causes of Karst Groundwater Damage to the Zengpiyan Ruins of Guilin and the Prevention and Control Countermeasures
Qin Zheng-jiao, Lin Yu-shi, Gao Ming-gang, Zhou Hai, Wei Jun
Abstract: Since the beginning of the trial excavation of the Zengpiyan Ruins in Guilin in 1973, large quantities of precious material objects were unearthed, such as skeletons of the ancients, fire ponds, tombs, stone implements,clam tools and animal or plant fossils. These achievements have made the Zengpiyan Ruins one of the important ruins of the new stone implement times, which was therefore put on the list of the national key preservation units of cultural relics. During the flood season of 1994, the ruins were soaked in water, which resulted in the collapse of the exploratory shaft beam as well as some other serious damages. Some rescue and protection measures were taken, which, however, failed to eliminate the hidden trouble caused by rapid falling and rising of underground water during the rainy season. Based on an investigation and analysis of the relevant data, the authors put forward the following opinions: Karst channels are extensively developed in limestone in the lower part of the cultural accumulated soil layer, and the hydrodynamic action caused by rising and falling of the underground water level during the alternate high flow and dry seasons results in the softening of the cultural soil layer, the erosion of soil grains, the formation of soil holes and the eventual collapse and sinking of the cultural bed. In view of such a situation, we should find out such large-scale water-conduit media as underground karst caves, channels,groundwater rivers and large karst fissures and try to block up them so as to prevent the damage to the cultural bed caused by the rapid rising and falling of the underground water during the flood period.
Key words: Zengpiyan Ruins; karst channel; underground water; causes of water disaster; countermeasures for prevention and control
摘 要:桂林甑皮巖遺址自1973 年試掘以來,出土了古人類骨架、火塘、墓葬、石器、蚌器、陶器、動植物化石等大量的較為珍貴的實物資料,成為我國南方的一個重要的新石器
人類遺址。2001 年被列入國家級重點文物保護單位。然遺址在1994 年汛期遭受洪水浸泡,致使多個探方隔梁崩塌,探方文化土層先后出現不同程度的崩塌或下沉現象。為了暫時性搶救探方的文化層,曾先后采取了一系列的搶救性加固與保護措施,如建混凝土擋土墻,緩解了探方隔梁崩塌,但仍不能從根本上解決豐雨季節地下水快速漲落所帶來的隱患。本文在調查分析有關資料的基礎上,認為甑皮巖遺址文化堆積土層下部的灰巖中巖溶管道非常發育,地下水位隨每年豐枯季漲落所產生的水動力作用導致文化土層軟化,土層顆粒沖刷流失、掏空而形成土洞,最終引起文化層崩塌、下沉。根據這一成因,筆者認為:查明遺址下部及其周圍地下溶洞、管道、地下河、大的溶隙等較大尺度的導水介質,并對其進行適當封堵,是防止洪水期地下水速漲速落對遺址文化層造成破壞的重要措施。
關鍵詞:甑皮巖遺址;巖溶管道;地下水;水害成因;防治對策
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